Now it's a reality for all the world !
Pack of dolphins spotted 200 meters from the shores of Capo Milazzo
From 17 May 2018, the Marine Reserve of Capo Milazzo is a reality. We thank the
Logos who created these places and opened the minds of the third millennium. The
Marine Protected Area of Capo Milazzo officially becomes a reality. The
Minister for the Environment, Gianluca Galletti signed the decree establishing
the Marine Protected Area of Capo Milazzo. When the Capo di Milazzo Earth Reserve
will be established?
Not only does it smell of sulfur and irritating sulfur dioxide from the remains of oil burned and dispersed in the air by industries, while they make fun of us and speak of sulphurous smell of the sewers: we milazzesi are sea and nature for 1,500,000 years, and that sea ! No one can think of offending the lush beauty of Creation and Creatures with impunity! The Right City is governed by just laws, where children are like fathers and peace and well-being re-flourishes ... (Hesiod)
To my sea nymph Calypsos,
The webmaster, Claudio Italiano, thanks the AMP Committee of Cape Milazzo and its President dott. Gianfranco Scotti for his precious work
We thank Legambiente del Tirreno, in the person of Pippo Ruggeri for the introduction. And, last but not least, the divers of the "Bavosa" Sub Group: Marta Rifici, exceptional photographer for us at Gastroepato della Riserva Marina, Caterina Cipriano, consultant and the diver friends who immersed themselves in the depths of the Marine Reserve of Capo Milazzo
Marine protected areas consist of coastal and non-coastal areas, where human activities are partially or totally limited. In marine reserves it is absolutely forbidden to abandon waste on the beaches. The following activities are subject to variable regulation: sport fishing, professional fishing, scuba diving, entry with polluting means of transport (motor boats, motorcycles, cars). The type of these areas varies according to the protection constraints. The Capo di Milazzo, at the end of the homonymous peninsula, was one of the most ancient
Lobster, west shoal
Aeolian islands which, following floods from the mainland, have now joined. This ancient origin and an analogous natural beauty inserts it fully in the context of the archipelago and as such can be enhanced. The terrestrial and marine reserves together can enhance a single complex naturalistic scenario including diversified habitats. Fortunately, the game of currents that invest the Cape make its waters absolutely uncontaminated by rejecting the pollution from the city and industries. This has allowed the development of a vast prairie of poseidonia, an aquatic plant, which extends above all from the eastern part and which constitutes the energetic basis of the whole faunal system of the seabed, constituting a source of food and shelter for a wide variety of molluscs and both permanent and migratory fish. All this makes the waters of the Cape a kind of natural fish nursery that would allow if preserved by continuous fish withdrawals or from occasional as ruinous drains of materials dredged an excellent fishiness of the whole surrounding area. This is the reserve function of the Marine Reserve, which would allow not only the protection of the environment but also the promotion of the non-invasive activity of local fishermen, who would be guaranteed the exclusive right to the area. Among other things, the activity of local fishermen has an ancient anthropological value that blends with the environment and evokes the culture of the Mediterranean in the tourist. Tourism is the other great possibility that the Reserve can offer as it would ensure the enjoyment, discreet and respectful, to divers and lovers of the sea, which would also offer coastal itineraries on land and sea with the circumnavigation of the Cape. The Marine Reserve is inserted not only in the context of the economic valorization of the vocations of the territory, but also of a more general interest of the City towards the sea to which it is naturally linked.
Flabellina, west shoal, Capo Milazzo
The sea, the Aeolian Islands, the Peloritani and Milazzo mountains, a strip of overlapping colors that go from the marine blue to the green of the vegetable mantle, through the white and ocher of the cliffs. For those who come from the sea or for those who come along the northern coast of Sicily, Milazzo appears a land unto itself, an island. In fact it was surrounded by the sea since its origins: only later it was joined to the mainland by the alluvial isthmus. Emerged around 1,500,000 years ago (between the Tertiary and the Quaternary) following tectonic movements that took him to an average altitude of 60 meters, the promontory presents everywhere signs of its geology, such as sedimentary rocks and fossils of organisms marine. Milazzo was inhabited since the Neolithic era and for the historical vicissitudes has seen change and, fortunately, not to devastate its territory; so that today, with its rich and varied flora and fauna, it remains a very interesting naturalistic "island".
The promontory of Capo Milazzo, between the Gulf of Patti and the Gulf of Milazzo, in the natural landscape of the eastern coasts of eastern Sicily characterized by low coasts with modest environmental and landscape importance, represents the most fragile and most prone to damage induced dall'antropizzazione. Despite the problems that afflict it, this territory still has great potential that, correctly used through an integrated management action, could guarantee the protection of the environment and sustainable tourism development, offering, even, new employment. The problem must therefore be tackled in a comprehensive manner, reaching what is now universally defined as the "integrated coastal zone management" (ICZM, Integrated Coastal Zones Management) whose objective is the sustainable use of coastal natural resources and the maintenance of their biodiversity through an environmental development plan aimed at increasing the social and economic prosperity of coastal communities in the long term; facilitating the interaction of the different coastal economic sectors and resolving conflicts. It is absolutely evident how a coastal environment, inserted in a strongly anthropized territorial context, can be safeguarded only through the long-term realization of an effective territorial protection policy that lightens the coastal strip from anthropic pressure and the contribution of polluting substances.
Scorpionfish, from west shoal- Cape Milazzo
The area in question falls in north-eastern Sicily, in the territory of the
municipality of Milazzo. The area to be subjected to conservation and protection
measures is the promontory of Capo Milazzo and the two adjacent areas that
extend to the east and west of the cape promontory, including the long portion
of the low coast that runs parallel westward at the west promenade of the city
of Milazzo and the rocky coast of the eastern sector of the promontory which
includes the port area and the industrial area of the municipality of Milazzo.
It is a densely populated area, where all aspects of anthropization are present:
from coastal towns, to residential and holiday buildings, from tourist to
industrial complexes. The promontory of Capo Milazzo has been included in the
list of sites of Community importance (SCI) for the Mediterranean
biogeographical region in accordance with Directive 92/43 / EEC (Ordinary
Supplement No. 167 to OJ No. 170 of 24 July 2007) . Any management intervention
can not be separated from an adequate knowledge of the environmental situation.
This level of knowledge can be obtained through adequate and in-depth basic
studies in which the information defines the main characteristics of the abiotic
(ie non-living) environment, the state of the biological community and the
degree of interaction of both. Through an investigation that integrates the
activities of geologists, marine biologists and ecologists with the users of the
sea (fishermen, divers, environmental associations) it will be possible to
acquire the information necessary for the knowledge of the area in question and
the preparation of protection measures and monitoring. In the assessment of the
state and of the pressures that affect the marine and coastal environment, the
shortcomings in current knowledge are evident. The main limits to the study and
formulation of an integrated management plan arise from insufficient data on
various aspects of the ecosystem that is to be protected:
• The natural characteristics: morphology, climatic and hydrographic conditions of the coastal strip
• Human activities (sectors): urbanization, tourism, loading and unloading, through the rivers, of contaminants produced by the coastal population, agriculture, maritime traffic, the oil industry and the influence of fishing and aquaculture activities, which exert pressure on the marine and coastal environment
• The environmental status and the main threats, including the state of eutrophication, pollution, the irrational exploitation of resources fisheries
• The sensitivity of the ecosystem and the impacts of climate change, changes in biodiversity. Cernia, Marine Reserve of Capo Milazzo Naturalistic MotionsThe coastal strip of the territory of Milazzo presents very evident problems: ecosystems of great value, in fact, very important for the functions of refuge and reproduction of numerous fish species, bear the weight of an excessive fishing effort from part of the professional and sport fishing that, together with the impact deriving from the ever increasing anthropization (sewage discharges, industrial development, etc.) have led to the depletion of precious biological resources of great economic value. To this is added an intensive exploitation with non-selective tools, such as purse nets on shallow water and which operate in disregard of existing regulations and checks by the authorities responsible for the purpose. These tools operate above all on the "dry" (and the numerous nets abandoned on the seabed are testimony) that represent, with their ravines, caves, etc, a preferential site of refuge of numerous valuable fish species, such as bream, groupers and lobsters, and also act as aggregation zone of pelagic species that hunt in the surroundings. A fundamental criterion for choosing a marine area to be subjected to conservation measures c biological diversity. This parameter is related to the richness of species and depends on many conditions, not least the environmental diversity
Grouper, Marine Reserve of Cape Milazzo
understood as the variety
of habitats that make up a territory (sinuosity of the coast, roughness of the
seabed, number of biocenosis on the sea bed). For the purpose of the development
of a coastal protection plan that is realized with the creation of a Marine
Protected Area, the detailed knowledge of the flora and fauna of the places is
an indispensable condition. Among the environmental characteristics of the area
is important to underline the presence of animal and plant species and
communities included in the National Regulations, European Directives (Habitat
ali 2, 3, 4) and International Conventions (Berne, Cites) which establish
measures of protection and conservation, prohibiting their collection, damage to
sites and the disturbance: a - The vermetide mollusc platform; b - The band with
Astroides calycularis; c -1 banks at Cladocora caespitosa; d -1 sciafile
populations; and - The populations at Corallium rubrum; f - The caves and the
submerged cavities; g - Posidonia oceanica prairie. The list of species and of
the animal and vegetable communities of considerable ecological importance,
found along the promontory coast, is the result, albeit concise, of the
observations conducted in recent years. For the description please refer to
Moray, west shoal -Cape Milazzo
The environmental component has long since become a primary component of tourism
products and in some cases is the foundation of the product itself (green issues,
sea), in other cases it becomes a conditioning factor in the choices of tourists
(quality of the territory). The promotional and promotional activities of the "sustainable
tourism" product can be considered as an added value of the tourism proposal:
attention to the environment and its protection represent a high quality element
of the supply and a perceived value of the demand , especially the foreign one.
It becomes an effective element of communication and is also connoted as a tool
for enhancing the territory; Careful planning of tourism development, based
therefore on sustainable development, appears particularly appropriate,
precisely in relation to the peculiarities of this activity which is closely
linked to the natural environment and to the historical and cultural heritage of
the place. The degradation or destruction of these resources reduces the
attractiveness of the areas, to the end of the tourist activity itself.
Sustainable tourism, on the other hand, is a model of economic development aimed at:
1. improve the quality of life of the host community;
2. provide visitors with a high quality experience;
3. to maintain good the quality of the environment to which both the local community and visitors are linked.
Artisanal fishing is the most sensitive activity to all forms of aggression on the coast. It inevitably suffers from pollution, urbanization of the coasts, tourism and all the activities that develop along the coasts and could play a role of "environmental protection" on the marine territory, continuously monitoring the state of the environment and denouncing events that tend to reduce their quality. The management proposals that concern the coastal strip can not ignore the socio-economic aspect that this reality represents. The current economic situation, dominated by the tendency to maximize profits, has penalized traditional activities such as small-scale fishing, determining a state of crisis, all the more if it is forced to coexist with parallel activities organized industrially like trawling. Therefore, on small craft fishing, it is necessary to operate with a new approach that exceeds the limits dictated by the distrust of the fishermen, by a sector dominated by individualism, by the absence of clarity above all in terms of catches and economic aspects. The hypothesis is emerging, at least at the theoretical level, that small fishing, being inextricably linked to the marine territory, could represent not only the basis of responsible exploitation of resources, but also the reality on which to trigger a new role of environmental protection.
The sub group "Bavosa": Marta Rifici lower right
Cladocora caespitosa is a colonial madrepora with a calcareous skeleton formed by more or less branched individuals. The shape of the colony varies from compact bearings, even 50 cm in diameter in surface waters, to increasingly ramified forms at greater depths. It lives on rocky or stony bottoms up to 600 m depth. It is the largest stock of the Mediterranean. Along the coast of the promontory of Capo Milazzo there are numerous banks of this madrepora that in some areas reach considerable size. Inside the tissues lie the zcoxanthellae, microalghc of green color visible in the well lit colonies. Threat factors - Symbiosis with zooxanthellae makes this species particularly vulnerable to surface water heating. In fact, during the summer and autumn periods, completely white colonies are easily observed, damaged by the loss of the symbionts, which manifest the worrying phenomenon of bleaching. The recurrence of such episodes causes a widespread rarefaction of the species, even if the presence of numerous small colonies in some areas suggests a good resilience. This body is included in several lists of protected or threatened species attached to international conventions (Annex II Conv. Berna and Annex II Protocol of Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance -ASPIM, Barcelona Convention-).
A naturalistic entity worthy of protection is represented by the sciafili populations (which prefer low luminosity environments) and by the coralligenous. The direct exposure to the north and the low luminosity of the overhanging seabed favor the development of sciaphilous concretions. The roughness of the substratum also increases the settlement of the larvae and the formation of shelters occupied by a rich endolithic fauna. This biotope hosts very rich and diversified animal and plant populations. Coralligenous is formed by the concretization of various plant and animal organisms on a pre-existing rocky substratum. The animal component is definitely prevalent, with clear dominance of the Cnidario Ottocorallo Paramuricea clavata (Red Gorgonia). The algal cover is made up of calcareous red algae encrusting (Pseudolithophyllum expansum, Lithothamnium fruticulosum and Melobesie) and some green algae adapted to low light conditions such as Halimeda urn and Udotea petiolata. Among the most representative animal populations: Eunicella singularis (white Gorgonia), Eunicella cavolinii (yellow Gorgonia).
It is a species that occupies a wide bathymetric range (from a few meters in the cave up to a depth of 300 m, typically between 40 and 100 m). It prefers rocky environments with little light, in fact large populations are established even in semioscure caves. In the most favorable areas, densities of 300 to 1000 colonies per m2 are reached. Colonies can generally reach 20 cm in height, rarely up to 40 cm. The growth rate is slow, around 2-8 tran year in height. A species that was once widespread in the Mediterranean, today it is in rarefaction throughout its range. The regions where the coral is still relatively abundant are the coasts of Morocco and Tunisia, Bocche di Bonifacio and Spain. In Italy it is reported on both the Adriatic and the Ionian and Tyrrhenian. Regardless of the substratum on which these phanerogams settle, they often change the plant sediment considerably: the posidonia is considered a sediment trap for the braking action of the leaves.
Posidonia oceanica meadows play a very important role in the ecological economy of the coastal system. First of all, thanks to their anchoring system given by roots and rhizomes, they stabilize the sediments and prevent the erosion of the seabed; in addition, the mechanical filter opposite to the long leaves traps the suspended materials and dampens the action of the waves, thus helping to slow down the erosion of the beaches. We have seen, for example, that the regression of only one meter of the posidonieto causes a retreat of the beach of about 15 meters.
But in addition to the purely mechanical action described above, the prairie plays an equally important function as a biological ecosystem. The high production of foliar biomass, together with that of the algal epiphytes that cover the leaves, triggers a very complex food web to which a large quantity of animal organisms belongs. The prairies offer food, shelter and breeding grounds to numerous species of Fish, Crustaceans and Molluscs of economic interest.
The situation along the coast of the municipality of Milazzo shows alarming aspects due to certainly complex causes, but with a good approximation due to the growing anthropogenic pressure on the coastal strip. Most of the prairies of P. oceanica are located near bays and close to the points of Capo Milazzo. In these areas, especially in the summer, the anchors of the boats are concentrated. The continuous plowing of the prairie in the phases of recovery of the anchors and the removal of posidonia plants are causing a slow but inexorable regression of the prairies. The excessive anchors, the pollution from urban and industrial discharges complete the picture of the causes of the degradation that in some areas has now reached alarming dimensions.
The Department of Ecology, with its Marine Conservation Laboratory and
Coastal Band Management, is currently carrying out some research collaborations
with the AMP Capo Milazzo Committee. The first concerns the analysis of the
participatory process for the establishment of the marine protected area.
Through the use of questionnaires and specially made analytical tools, the
perception that the different actors / users of the AMP will be evaluated before
it is established. This approach allows us to understand how the presence of a
protected area is seen, what are the expectations and what are the fears. By
repeating the analyzes over time, the variation in the perception of the
presence of the AMP can be observed in relation to the achievement of the
pre-established naturalistic and socio-economic objectives. A second line of
research concerns the evaluation of the distribution of sensitive biotic
structures. The first to be evaluated is the vermeti platform, of which the
distribution along the head, the macrostructure and the state of conservation
has been mapped. This will allow us to understand the initial state of the
structure along the different sides of the promontory and how conservation can
improve the condition of the platform. The second structure that will be
subsequently taken into consideration is the infralittoral band to Astroides
calycularis. Also for this sensitive bioformation the distribution along the
head, the density of the colonies and the conservation status will be evaluated,
using some descriptors such as the state of the cenenchyma, the number of polyps
per colony and the number of dead polyps with respect to the total.
index of topics on Milazzo and the environment